Climate & Geography

Natural zones of Mongolia

Mongolia is one of the rich natural countries in the world. Because there are 7 natural zones: such as High Mountain Zone, Taiga Forest Zone, Mountain Forest Steppe Zone, Steppe Zone, Desert-Steppe Zone, Gobi Desert Zone, Wetlands. For example: Mongolian from north to south it can be divided into four natural zones: mountain-forest steppe, mountain steppe and, in the extreme south, semi-desert and desert.

Natural zones of Mongolia

All Mongolia is “mountain”, the country averaging 1.5 kilometers above the sea level. In Mongolian terms, 5%is at such high altitude as to endure extreme condition -the High Mountain Zone – winds, extreme cold, and very short growing season.
The Zone is above the tree line, characterized by tundra, alpine- sedge meadows, upland swamps and lichen- covered screes and boulders. Plants include shrubby Ground Birch; occasion Mountain Pine, beautiful white Gentian and Mountain Saxifrage. Typical mammals are “Argali”, Ibex, Snow leopard, Ermine, Snow Marten and Mountain Hare, birds include White Ptarmigan, Altai Snow cock, Eurasian Dottrel, Rock Pigeon and Red-Billed Chough.

Taiga forest zone:

Northern Mongolia includes the southern rim of Siberia ‘s vast taiga forest, the largest forest on the planet Earth. The taiga is boreal coniferous forest, mainly Siberian Larch and in higher areas Siberian Pine. Other confers such as Siberian Spruce feature. The bark and forest floor is rich in moss and lichens. In Mongolia are relatively undisturbed.

Mountain forest steppe:

To the south, about 25% of Mongolia is a mix of forest and grassland, a transition zone between taiga forest and steppe , with northern slopes clothed in trees and southern slopes carpets of wild ‘ flower of open grassland’. This attractive landscape has a high biological diversity, home to Roe Deer, Elk, Wolf, Red Fox, and Tolai Hare, Siberian marmot.

Steppe Zone:

Further south, the Steppe Zone is a ‘sea grass’ covering 20% of Mongolia , crucial for the livestock of the semi-nomadic herder families. These permanent pastures, undisturbed by ploughing or artificial chemical are rich carpets of sweet smelling herbs, flower and grasses. The steppe Zone is crucial for the semi-nomadic life with livestock such as horses, goats, cattle, yaks and camels.


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